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import sys

class Letter:

def __init__(self, letter, freq):

self.letter = letter

self.freq = freq

self.bitstring = ""

def __repr__(self):

return f"{self.letter}:{self.freq}"

class TreeNode:

def __init__(self, freq, left, right):

self.freq = freq

self.left = left

self.right = right

def parse_file(file_path):


Read the file and build a dict of all letters and their

frequencies, then convert the dict into a list of Letters.


chars = {}

with open(file_path) as f:

while True:

c =

if not c:


chars[c] = chars[c] + 1 if c in chars.keys() else 1

return sorted([Letter(c, f) for c, f in chars.items()], key=lambda l: l.freq)

def build_tree(letters):


Run through the list of Letters and build the min heap

for the Huffman Tree.


while len(letters) > 1:

left = letters.pop(0)

right = letters.pop(0)

total_freq = left.freq + right.freq

node = TreeNode(total_freq, left, right)


letters.sort(key=lambda l: l.freq)

return letters[0]

def traverse_tree(root, bitstring):


Recursively traverse the Huffman Tree to set each

Letter's bitstring, and return the list of Letters


if type(root) is Letter:

root.bitstring = bitstring

return [root]

letters = []

letters += traverse_tree(root.left, bitstring + "0")

letters += traverse_tree(root.right, bitstring + "1")

return letters

def huffman(file_path):


Parse the file, build the tree, then run through the file

again, using the list of Letters to find and print out the

bitstring for each letter.


letters_list = parse_file(file_path)

root = build_tree(letters_list)

letters = traverse_tree(root, "")

print(f"Huffman Coding of {file_path}: ")

with open(file_path) as f:

while True:

c =

if not c:


le = list(filter(lambda l: l.letter == c, letters))[0]

print(le.bitstring, end=" ")


if __name__ == "__main__":

# pass the file path to the huffman function